The Nile Water Agreement Of 1929 And 1959 Pdf

Apr 13, 2021   //   by admin   //   Uncategorized  //  No Comments

The CFA was ready to be signed as of May 10, 2010; Burundi, Ethiopia, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania and Uganda have signed the agreement; Ethiopian parliament has ratified it. However, in arguing that their “acquired rights” in the waters of the Nile would not be protected, Egypt and Sudan immediately announced their intention not to sign the agreement because they opposed the text of Article 14, point b): “The States of the Nile Basin therefore accept, in a spirit of cooperation: … b) not to significantly affect the water safety of another Nile Basin state.” They then proposed an alternative formulation to Article 14, point b): “The States of the Nile Basin therefore accept, in a spirit of cooperation: . . . . . (b) not to significantly harm the safety of water and the current uses and rights of another Nile Basin state,” this formulation was rejected by the upstream riparian states, which assert that “current rights and rights” would anchor the concept of prerogatives, including those created by the Nile water agreements , and have effectively maintained the injustice and injustice that have characterized the allocation and use of water in the Nile basin since the 1920s. Under these conditions, Egypt would receive 48 billion cubic meters of water per year and 4 billion cubic meters in Sudan. Egypt would not need the agreement of the upstream states to carry out water projects in its own territories, but could veto all inflows from the Nile into the upstream countries, including the 43,130 square kilometre victoriaiase. The world`s second largest freshwater lake is fed by direct rainfall and thousands of streams from Tanzania, Burundi, Uganda and Kenya, all located in central-eastern Africa. To this day, Egypt argues that the Anglo-Egyptian Treaty of 1929 and its amended version, the 1959 agreement, are still valid. The 1959 agreement signed by Egypt and an independent Sudan brought Egypt`s share to 55.5 billion cubic meters and Sudan`s share to 18.5 billion cubic meters.

I say that the strength of the agreements made in modern times and Egypt`s threats to use military force are questionable for two reasons. First, the former colonies are now independent nations and should be part of the negotiations for a new agreement. Second, environmental conditions have changed: rainfall is becoming more frequent and droughts are getting longer. Egyptian, Ethiopian and Sudanese leaders met in the Sudanese capital, Khartoum, on Monday 23 March 2015 to sign an agreement to resolve various problems arising from Ethiopia`s decision to establish a dam on the Blue Nile. The Khartoum Declaration, signed by the heads of state of the three countries, Abdel Fattah al-Sisi (Egypt), Omar al-Bashir (Sudan) and Halemariam Desalegn (Ethiopia), was described as a “Nile Agreement” that contributes to the resolution of conflicts over the shared use of Nile waters. This view is misleading, however, because, as far as we know, the agreement deals only with the project of the Great Ethiopian Renaissance Dam (GERDP) of the Blue Nile and does not address the broader, always controversial issues of the common use of Nile waters among all the riparian states.

 

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